What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.

The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.


Symptoms of DIABETES:


Diabetes symptoms depends on your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, for example, those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may sometimes not experience symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.


signs and symptoms:

1. Increased thirst
2. Frequent urination
3. Extreme hunger
4. Unexplained weight loss
5. Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin)
6. Fatigue
7. Irritability
8. Blurred vision
9. Slow-healing sores
10.Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appears during childhood or adolescence. 
Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40.

Right time to visit Doctor:


If you notice any possible diabetes symptoms, contact your doctor. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the sooner treatment can begin.
If you've already been diagnosed with diabetes. After you receive your diagnosis, you'll need close medical follow-up until your blood sugar levels stabilize.

Cause of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear. Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes.

Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.


Gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.

Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.

Blood Sugar and Exercise:

All forms of exercise—aerobic, resistance, or doing both (combined training)—were equally good at lowering HbA1c values in people with diabetes. Resistance training and aerobic exercise both helped to lower insulin resistance in previously sedentary older adults with abdominal obesity at risk for diabetes.
The effect physical activity has on your blood sugar will vary depending on how long you are active and many other factors.  Physical activity can lower your blood sugar up to 24 hours or more after your workout by making your body more sensitive to insulin.

Hypoglycemia during Physical Activity:

People taking insulin or insulin secretagogues (oral diabetes pills that cause your pancreas to make more insulin) are at risk for hypoglycemia if insulin dose or carbohydrate intake is not adjusted with exercise. Checking your blood sugar before doing any physical activity is important to prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).  Talk to your diabetes care team (doctor, nurse, dietitian or pharmacist) to find out if you are at risk for hypoglycemia.

If you experience hypoglycemia during or after exercise, treat it immediately:

Follow the 15-15 rule:
1. Check your blood sugar.

2. If your reading is 100 mg/dL or lower, have 15-20 grams of carbohydrate to raise your blood sugar. This may be:

    4 glucose tablets (4 grams per tablet), or
    1 glucose gel tube (15 grams per gel tube), or
    4 ounces (1/2 cup) of juice or regular soda (not diet), or
    1 tablespoon of sugar or honey
3. Check your blood sugar again after 15 minutes. If it is still below 100 mg/dL, have another serving of 15 grams of carbohydrate.

4. Repeat these steps every 15 minutes until your blood sugar is at least 100 mg/dL.

If you want to continue your workout, you will usually need to take a break to treat your low blood sugar. Check to make sure your blood sugar has come back up above 100 mg/dl before starting to exercise again.


If you have diabetes, exercise offers surprising benefits. Not only does it lower your stress levels, it may also lower your blood sugar level and may even reduce your insulin requirements.

Exercise is so important for people with diabetes that The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week. And the American Diabetes Association recommends that you miss no more than two days of aerobic exercise in a row.

What exercise can do for you?

If you have diabetes, exercise offers surprising benefits. Not only does it lower your stress levels, it may also lower your blood sugar level and may even reduce your insulin requirements.

Exercise is so important for people with diabetes that The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week. And the American Diabetes Association recommends that you miss no more than two days of aerobic exercise in a row.

Helps your body use insulin, which controls your blood sugar
Burns extra body fat
Strengthens muscles and bones
Lowers blood pressure
Cuts LDL (“bad”) cholesterol
Raises HDL (“good”) cholesterol
Improves blood flow
Makes heart disease and stroke less likely
Boosts energy and mood
Reduces stress.

5 exercises for people with diabetes:



Try to make a habit of doing the following exercises on a regular basis,  

Walking — Because anyone can do it almost anywhere, walking is the most popular exercise and highly recommended for people with diabetes. Spending 30 minutes of brisk walking, five times each week is a great way to increase your physical activity. You can even break this 30 minutes down into 10-minute sessions three times a day.

Strength training: thrice a week strength training is proved to be effective in diabetes and insulin control.



Yoga — A traditional form of exercise, yoga incorporates fluid movements that build flexibility, strength and balance. It’s helpful for people with a variety of chronic conditions, including diabetes. It lowers stress and improves nerve function, which leads to an increased state of mental health and wellness.yoga may improve blood glucose levels due to improved muscle mass.




Dancing — Dancing is not only great for your body. The mental work to remember dance steps and sequences actually boosts brain power and improves memory. For those with diabetes, it is a fun and exciting way to increase physical activity, promote weight loss, improve flexibility, lower blood sugar and reduce stress.




Swimming — Swimming stretches and relaxes your muscles and doesn’t put pressure on your joints, which is great for people with diabetes. For those with diabetes or at risk for developing diabetes, studies show it improves cholesterol levels, burns calories and lowers stress levels. To get the most benefit from swimming, we recommend that you swim at least three times a week for at least ten minutes and gradually increase the length of the workout. Lastly, let the lifeguard know that you have diabetes before you get in the pool.




Exercise safety
Before starting an exercise program, talk to your doctor to be sure the exercise you choose is safe and appropriate for your type of diabetes. Remember to start slowly, especially if you have not been physically active for a while.
Check your blood sugar before and after exercise until you are aware of how your body responds to exercise.
Whether you have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, make sure your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dl before exercising. For people with Type 1 diabetes, exercising with a blood sugar higher than 250 mg/dl may cause ketoacidosis, which can be a life threatening condition resulting from a lack of insulin in the body. Do a five-minute warm-up before and a five-minute cool down after exercising.
Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise to prevent dehydration.
Be prepared for any episodes of low blood sugar. Have something available that can bring sugar levels up, such as hard candy, glucose tablets or 4 ounces of juice.
Always carry a cell phone.
Avoid exercising in extremely hot or cold temperatures.
Wear proper shoes and socks to protect your feet.

 What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.

The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.


Symptoms of DIABETES:


Diabetes symptoms depends on your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, for example, those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may sometimes not experience symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.


signs and symptoms:

1. Increased thirst
2. Frequent urination
3. Extreme hunger
4. Unexplained weight loss
5. Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin)
6. Fatigue
7. Irritability
8. Blurred vision
9. Slow-healing sores
10.Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appears during childhood or adolescence. 
Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40.

Right time to visit Doctor:


If you notice any possible diabetes symptoms, contact your doctor. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the sooner treatment can begin.
If you've already been diagnosed with diabetes. After you receive your diagnosis, you'll need close medical follow-up until your blood sugar levels stabilize.

Cause of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear. Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes.

Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.


Gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.

Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.

Blood Sugar and Exercise:

All forms of exercise—aerobic, resistance, or doing both (combined training)—were equally good at lowering HbA1c values in people with diabetes. Resistance training and aerobic exercise both helped to lower insulin resistance in previously sedentary older adults with abdominal obesity at risk for diabetes.
The effect physical activity has on your blood sugar will vary depending on how long you are active and many other factors.  Physical activity can lower your blood sugar up to 24 hours or more after your workout by making your body more sensitive to insulin.

Hypoglycemia during Physical Activity:

People taking insulin or insulin secretagogues (oral diabetes pills that cause your pancreas to make more insulin) are at risk for hypoglycemia if insulin dose or carbohydrate intake is not adjusted with exercise. Checking your blood sugar before doing any physical activity is important to prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).  Talk to your diabetes care team (doctor, nurse, dietitian or pharmacist) to find out if you are at risk for hypoglycemia.

If you experience hypoglycemia during or after exercise, treat it immediately:

Follow the 15-15 rule:
1. Check your blood sugar.

2. If your reading is 100 mg/dL or lower, have 15-20 grams of carbohydrate to raise your blood sugar. This may be:

    4 glucose tablets (4 grams per tablet), or
    1 glucose gel tube (15 grams per gel tube), or
    4 ounces (1/2 cup) of juice or regular soda (not diet), or
    1 tablespoon of sugar or honey
3. Check your blood sugar again after 15 minutes. If it is still below 100 mg/dL, have another serving of 15 grams of carbohydrate.

4. Repeat these steps every 15 minutes until your blood sugar is at least 100 mg/dL.

If you want to continue your workout, you will usually need to take a break to treat your low blood sugar. Check to make sure your blood sugar has come back up above 100 mg/dl before starting to exercise again.


If you have diabetes, exercise offers surprising benefits. Not only does it lower your stress levels, it may also lower your blood sugar level and may even reduce your insulin requirements.

Exercise is so important for people with diabetes that The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week. And the American Diabetes Association recommends that you miss no more than two days of aerobic exercise in a row.

What exercise can do for you?

If you have diabetes, exercise offers surprising benefits. Not only does it lower your stress levels, it may also lower your blood sugar level and may even reduce your insulin requirements.

Exercise is so important for people with diabetes that The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week. And the American Diabetes Association recommends that you miss no more than two days of aerobic exercise in a row.

Helps your body use insulin, which controls your blood sugar
Burns extra body fat
Strengthens muscles and bones
Lowers blood pressure
Cuts LDL (“bad”) cholesterol
Raises HDL (“good”) cholesterol
Improves blood flow
Makes heart disease and stroke less likely
Boosts energy and mood
Reduces stress.

5 exercises for people with diabetes:



Try to make a habit of doing the following exercises on a regular basis,  

Walking — Because anyone can do it almost anywhere, walking is the most popular exercise and highly recommended for people with diabetes. Spending 30 minutes of brisk walking, five times each week is a great way to increase your physical activity. You can even break this 30 minutes down into 10-minute sessions three times a day.

Strength training: thrice a week strength training is proved to be effective in diabetes and insulin control.



Yoga — A traditional form of exercise, yoga incorporates fluid movements that build flexibility, strength and balance. It’s helpful for people with a variety of chronic conditions, including diabetes. It lowers stress and improves nerve function, which leads to an increased state of mental health and wellness.yoga may improve blood glucose levels due to improved muscle mass.




Dancing — Dancing is not only great for your body. The mental work to remember dance steps and sequences actually boosts brain power and improves memory. For those with diabetes, it is a fun and exciting way to increase physical activity, promote weight loss, improve flexibility, lower blood sugar and reduce stress.




Swimming — Swimming stretches and relaxes your muscles and doesn’t put pressure on your joints, which is great for people with diabetes. For those with diabetes or at risk for developing diabetes, studies show it improves cholesterol levels, burns calories and lowers stress levels. To get the most benefit from swimming, we recommend that you swim at least three times a week for at least ten minutes and gradually increase the length of the workout. Lastly, let the lifeguard know that you have diabetes before you get in the pool.




Exercise safety
Before starting an exercise program, talk to your doctor to be sure the exercise you choose is safe and appropriate for your type of diabetes. Remember to start slowly, especially if you have not been physically active for a while.
Check your blood sugar before and after exercise until you are aware of how your body responds to exercise.
Whether you have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, make sure your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dl before exercising. For people with Type 1 diabetes, exercising with a blood sugar higher than 250 mg/dl may cause ketoacidosis, which can be a life threatening condition resulting from a lack of insulin in the body. Do a five-minute warm-up before and a five-minute cool down after exercising.
Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise to prevent dehydration.
Be prepared for any episodes of low blood sugar. Have something available that can bring sugar levels up, such as hard candy, glucose tablets or 4 ounces of juice.
Always carry a cell phone.
Avoid exercising in extremely hot or cold temperatures.
Wear proper shoes and socks to protect your feet.